Public Health Code of Ethics


Public Health Code of Ethics


of the American Public Health Association

2019 Public Health Code of Ethics


Ethics Bureau

World Society of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

March 8, 2021


1. The World Society of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (WSPOS) recognizes and respects that knowledge and skill exist throughout the world and its membership represents a diverse collaboration of health care professionals in a variety of settings,

2. The professional work of members of WSPOS may include public health research, education and clinical care including interventions for diverse underserved populations,

3. WSPOS desires to promote the fiduciary duty of its members and pediatric ophthalmologists around the world to uphold the highest standard of ethical conduct in all settings inclusive of public health related work,

4. Special principles and considerations may apply when doing such work. and

5. WSPOS promotes social justice around the world

The Ethics bureau of WSPOS formally endorses the 2019 publication of the American Public Health Association: 2019 Public Health Code of Ethics.


Executive Summary:

The Code promotes the following Core Values of public health engagement.

A. Professionalism and Trust

B. Health and Safety

C. Health Justice and Equity

D. Interdependence and Solidarity

E. Human Rights and Civil Liberties

F. Inclusivity and Engagement


In considering the Core Values, the Code offers the following guidelines for ethical analysis.

· Permissibility: “Would the action being considered be ethically wrong even if it were to have a good outcome?”

· Respect: “Would the proposed action be demeaning or disrespectful to individuals and communities even if it benefited their health?”

· Reciprocity: “Have we done what is reasonable to offset the potential harms and losses that the proposed action imposes on individuals and communities?”

· Effectiveness: “Is it reasonable to expect, based on best available evidence and past experience, that the proposed action would achieve its stated health goals?”

· Responsible use of scarce resources: “Would the proposed action demonstrate good stewardship and deserve the trust that the public has invested in healthcare practitioners?”

· Proportionality: “Would the proposed action demonstrate that public health practitioners are using their power and authority judiciously and with humility?”

· Accountability and transparency: “Would the proposed action withstand close ethical scrutiny and be justified by valid reasons that the general public will understand?”

· Public participation: “In deciding on the proposed action, have all potentially affected stakeholders had a meaningful opportunity to participate? If some are to be deliberately excluded from decision-making, is there an ethical justification for doing so?”


WSPOS strongly encourages its members to view this Code ( and incorporate its values and Action Guidance Recommendations in their public health work serving patients globally.


Respectfully Submitted,

Ethics Bureau

March 8, 2021

Privacy Policy
Loading please wait